Shariah compliance of stocks is done under the guidance of qualified and reputed Shariah experts. For stocks to be “Shariah compliant”, it must meet ALL the six key tests given below:
Business of the Investee Company
The core business of the company should not violate any principle of Shariah. Therefore, it is not permissible to acquire the shares of the companies providing financial services on interest like conventional banks, insurance companies, leasing companies or the companies involved in some other business not approved by the Shariah e.g. Companies making or selling liquor, pork, haram meat, or involved in gambling, or any other impermissible activities.If the main business of the investee companies is Halal, like automobiles, textiles, manufacturing concerns etc but they deposit their surplus amounts in an interest bearing account or borrow money on interest, the share holder must express his/her disapproval against such dealings, preferably by raising his/her voice against such activities in the annual general meeting of the company and/or by sending a letter to the management in this regard.
Interest Bearing Debt to Total Assets, <37%
The Interest Bearing Debt to Assets ratio should be less than 37%. To understand the rationale behind this condition, it should be kept in mind that such companies are mostly based on interest. Here again, the aforementioned principle applies i.e. if the shareholder is not personally agreeable to such borrowings, but has been overruled by the majority, these borrowing transactions cannot be attributed to him/her. Debt, in this case, is classified as any interest bearing debt including Bonds, TFCs, Commercial Paper, Conventional Bank Loans, Finance Lease, Hire Purchase, issuing preference shares etc.
Non-Compliant Investments to Total Assets, <33%
The ratio of Non Compliant Investments to Total Assets should be less than 33%. Non-Shariah Compliant Investments include investments in conventional mutual funds, conventional money market instruments, Commercial Paper, interest bearing bank deposits, Bonds, PIBs, FIB, T-Bills, CoIs, CoDs, TFCs, DSCs, NSS, derivatives etc. Non-Compliant investments also include investments in companies which are declared Shariah non-Compliant due to non-compliance to any of the mentioned criteria for Shariah Compliance.
Non-complaint Income to Total revenue, <5%
The ratio of Non Compliant Income to Total Revenue should be less than 5%. Total Revenue includes Gross Revenue plus any other income earned by the company. Non Compliant Income includes income from gambling, income from interest based transactions, income from Gharar based transactions i.e. derivatives, insurance claim reimbursement from a conventional insurance company, any penalty charged on late payment in credit sale, income from casinos, addictive drugs, alcohol, dividend income from above mentioned businesses or companies which have been declared Shariah Non-Compliant due to non-compliance to any of the mentioned criteria for Shariah Compliance etc.
Illiquid Assets to Total Assets, >25%
The ratio of Illiquid Assets to Total Assets should be at least 25%. The Sum of all those assets whose trade price can deviate from par value, according to the rules of Shariah, is considered the aggregate value of illiquid assets. Illiquid Assets include inventory of raw materials, work-in-process, all fixed assets such as property, plant & equipment, stores and spares, stock in trade etc.
Net Liquid Assets/Share vs Market Price/Share
Market Price per share should be at least equal to or greater than net liquid assets per share. Net liquid assets per share is calculated by using the following formula: